The authors describe what forms of political participation, outside the electoral process, the populations of twenty-one European countries tend to employ and to what degree. They identify three types of non-electoral political participation: active-conventional, active-demonstrational, and passive participation. Overall non-electoral political participation is considerably lower in the post-communist and Mediterranean countries than in the Western European and Scandinavian countries.
Chapter in monograph
Vlachová, Klára, Tomáš Lebeda. 2009. „Types of Non-electoral Political Participation in Europe.“ Pp. 257-280 in Toš, N., K.H. Müller, Z. Fábián, J. Krejčí, M. Zielinski (eds.). Three Roads to Comparative Research: Analytical, Visual, Morphological. Edition Echoraum. Vienna: WISDOM. 536 s. ISBN 78-3-901941-17-7.
Part of publication:
Toš, N., K.H. Müller, Z. Fábián, J. Krejčí, M. Zielinski (eds.)