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Changes of the labor market are observed on the base of recent surveys from various points of view: 1. the production and utilization of human capital; 2. work incentives and rewards; 3. private ownership and job allocation; 4. work perspectives and unemployment. The transitory period will be very confused. The labor market will be segmented and the development of individual segments will be uneven. Already now, new temporary borderlines are created.
The results of the sociological survey Social Transformation in Czechoslovakia (October 1991) are reviewed from the angle of historical comparison with data from 1967 and 1984.
The article represents a continuation of the study Social Stratification in Czechoslovakia 1991 published in Sociologický časopis No. 5/1992. It is also based on the social transformation survey from October, 1991. In the first part, some cross-tabulations are presented. They demonstrate the interdependence between the differentiation of the male population along multidimensional status-pattern groupings (clusters), and six other important variables.
The purpose of this article is to assess the specific features of earnings differentials in Czechoslovakia and their change over time. Various explanatory hypotheses are submitted for understanding personal income distribution under the system of state socialism. Analysis of variance is used to show the influence of gender, age, education, and economic sector on level of reward.
Two perspectives, both elaborated in Marx's work, can be used to analyze income distribution under state socialism. The first is based on the wellknown principle, "from each according to his abilities, to each according to his work". This principle generally corresponds to the stratification vertical ordering of occupations.
The new economic situation after the political turnover requires comprehensive research on poverty, i. e., of its roots, extent, forms and coping strategies.